Specimens


Summary

Summary of Specimen Types available from the PCBN:

Type of Specimen Specimen Format Tumor Samples Normal Samples Matched Specimens Clinical Data Epidemiologic Data
Tissue TMA* Yes Yes Yes Some Some
Tissue Fixed Yes Yes Yes Yes Some
Tissue Frozen Yes Yes Yes Yes Some
Body Fluids Serum Yes Yes Some (tissue) Yes Yes
Body Fluids Plasma Yes Yes Some (tissue) Yes Yes
Body Fluids Buffy Coat Yes Yes Some (tissue) Yes Yes
Body Fluids Prostate fluid Yes No Some (tissue, blood) Yes Some
Body Fluids Seminal Vesicle Fluid Yes No Some (tissue, blood) Yes Some
Derived DNA Yes Yes Some (tissue, blood) Yes Some
Derived RNA Yes Yes Some (tissue, blood) Yes Some
Derived Protein Yes Yes Some (tissue, blood) Yes Some

* Abbreviations: TMA, tissue microarray; SV, seminal vesicle

Tissue Microarrays

Our collection includes small test arrays to large cohorts of retrospectively and/or prospectively acquired FFPE tissues, some of which have matched snap-frozen and blood component material. Each of the TMAs available was especially designed for rapid biomarker discovery studies. Tumor for use in TMAs is selected from the prostatectomy specimen using the highest grade/largest lesion (e.g. the index lesion). This is the lesion that most centers report, and large numbers of studies have validated that it correlates with outcome after prostatectomy. We randomly sample from multiple sites within this lesion 3 or 4 times to obtain representation and in general this number has been found to be adequate in the literature for assessing most biomarkers.

Available Tissue Microarrays:

TMA Description Priority
8 Case Test For use in testing an investigator’s IHC assay for biomarker of interest on PCBN material or for determining the prevalence of candidate biomarker in tumor. Includes 8 cases tumor and normal, no clinical data, across 1 block. 1
40 Case Screening For early phase comparison of tumor vs. normal. Includes 40 cases tumor and normal, 4 cores each, no clinical data, across 1 block. 1
80 Case Grade/Stage For testing biomarkers with evidence of association with cancer. Includes range of Gleason grade & pathology stage. 80 cases and matched normal – 4 cores each, with limited clinical data, across 2 blocks. 2
200 Case Grade/Stage For testing biomarkers strongly associated with cancer. Includes range of Gleason grade and pathology stage. 200 cases and matched normal – 4 cores each, with key clinical variables across 5 blocks. 2
235 Case Natural History of Prostate Cancer (Collaboration) For testing biomarkers associated with the natural history of prostate cancer progression. Constructed from 235 cases from the “Pound Paper” (Pound et al. 1999 JAMA 281(17):1591-7), tumor and normal – 4 cores each with the cases, with key clinical variables across 6 blocks. 3
10 Case Test PSA Progression For testing IHC assay before 726 case PSA Progression Array is released. Includes 10 cases with tumor (4 cores) and normal (4 cores), across 1 block. 1
726 Case PSA Progression (Collaboration) For testing biomarkers associated with prostate cancer progression. Includes 726 cases tumor (4 cores) and normal (4 cores), with key clinical variables, across 16 blocks. 3
27 Case Lymph Node Mets (Collaboration) Matched primary tumor and lymph node metastases (hormone naive); 27 cases across 1 block. 3
52 Case Lymph Node Mets (Collaboration) Matched primary tumor and lymph node metastases (hormone naive); 52 cases across 1 block. 3
150 Case Race Disparity (Collaboration) For comparing biomarkers in African American and Caucasian patients. Includes 75 cases tumor and normal from each group matched on grade and stage; key clinical and demographic data across 4 blocks. 3
114 Case Race Disparity For comparing biomarkers in African American and Caucasian patients. Includes 57 cases tumor and normal from each group matched on grade and stage; key clinical and demographic data across 3 blocks. 3
343 Case Family History For testing biomarkers associated with hereditary risk of prostate cancer. Includes 343 cases matched positive & negative family history cases (matched on Gleason score) across 7 blocks. 2
56 Case Hormone Sensitivity For testing biomarkers associated with androgen biology. Includes hormone naive vs. hormone refractory cases totaling 56 cases; 18 hormone resistant, 18 hormone naïve, 10 radical prostatectomy (RP) with neo adjuvant treatment, 10 RP without neo adjuvant treatment, 5 normal from RP with neo adjuvant treatment and 5 normal RP without neo adjuvant treatment – 4 cores per case, with key clinicopathological variables across 1 block. 2
217 Case Biochemical Recurrence For testing biomarkers strongly associated with known prognostic factors (e.g. stage, grade). Includes patients with vs. without biochemical recurrence. Total 217 cases, 23 with adjacent normal (4-5 tumor cores, 4 normal cores) and 13 BPH cases (4 cores), most with clinicopathological variables across 5 blocks. 3
50 Case Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) For testing biomarkers associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Includes 50 cases; 28 BPH from RP specimens, 12 BPH from suprapubic specimens, 10 normal from small prostate specimens, across 1 block. 1
119 Case High-Grade PIN For testing biomarkers associated with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Includes 119 cases, 4 cores HGPIN, 1 core tumor, with key clinical variables across 2 blocks. 2
Fixation For evaluating the impact of variation in fixation time on biomarkers of interest. Includes 27 cases, 5 time points per case (4, 8, 12, 24 and 48hr in 10%NBF), with diagnostic block, no clinical data across 1 block. 1
Ischemia / Fixation Delay For evaluating the impact of variation in tissue processing time (delay to fixation) on biomarkers of interest. Includes 15 cases, 4 time points per case (0 1, 2, 4hr delay to fixation), with diagnostic block, no clinical data across 1 block. 1

Tissue Microarrays in Development:

TMA Description Priority
High Grade Recurrence Gleason 8 tumors: cases with recurrence in less than 5 years matched to cases without recurrence for 10 years or more. 3
50 Case Movember Metastasis (Collaboration) Manufactured under the auspices of Movember. For testing biomarkers of primary prostate cancer vs metastatic disease, the influence of tumor microenvironment on protein expression, and biomarkers associated with advanced disease. Includes bone and visceral metastases. 50 cases and 10 matched primaries – 3 cores each, 2-4 metastases/ patient with key clinical variables across 4 blocks. 3
50 Case Metastasis and Treatment (Collaboration) For testing the influence of tumor microenvironment on protein expression and biomarkers associated with advanced disease. Includes bone and visceral metastases. 50 cases – 3 cores each, 2-4 metastases/ patient with key clinical variables across 4 blocks. 3
LuCaP PDX Models (Collaboration) For testing biomarkers strongly associated with cancer. Includes 12 androgen sensitive lines, 8 castration resistant sub-lines, and 4 neuroendocrine lines from the LuCaP series - 3 cores each, 3 xenografts / line with key clinical variables across 3 blocks. 1

Fixed Tissue

Our FFPE tissue collection span from 1980s to present. Most are clinico-pathologically annotated, while some have matched snap-frozen and blood component material.

Available FFPE Tissue:

Type of Surgery Description
Radical Prostatectomy Radical-retropubic and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy specimens from 1980s to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data.
Transurethral Resection of Prostate Transurethral resection specimens from 1980s to present. A subset are linked to clinical and pathology data.
Suprapubic Prostatectomy Suprapubic prostatectomy specimens from 1980s to present. All are annotated with standard oathology data.

FFPE Tissue Collection in Development:

Type of Surgery Description
Organ Donor Tissue Normal prostate specimens from men aged between 20 to 40 years obtained from organ donor networks. All with minimal clinical information.
Rapid-Autopsy Tissue Prostate and metastatic cancer specimens from men who have died with advanced metastatic disease obtained within 6 hours post-mortem.

Frozen Tissue

Our snap-frozen tissue collection span from 2000s to present. Most have matched FFPE tissue and are clinicopathologically annotated, while some cases have matched blood component material.

Available Snap-Frozen Tissue Collections:

Type of Specimen Description
Radical Prostatectomy Radical retropubic and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy specimens from 2000s to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data. Most have matched FFPE tissue and include matched normal and tumor tissue. More recent specimens have extensive processing annotation.
Seminal vesicles Seminal vesicle (SV) tips obtained from radical retropubic and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy specimens from late 2000s to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data. A subset have matched SV fluid.

Snap-Frozen Tissue Collection in Development:

Type of Specimen Description
Organ Donor Tissue Normal prostate specimens from men aged between 20 to 40 years obtained from organ donor networks. All with minimal clinical information.
Rapid-Autopsy Tissue Prostate and metastatic cancer specimens from men who have died with advanced metastatic disease obtained within 6 hours post-mortem.

Body Fluids

Our body fluids collection span from 2000s to present. Most have matched FFPE tissue and are clinicopathologically annotated, while some cases have matched blood component material.

Available Body Fluids Collections:

Type of Specimen Description
Serum Serum derived using a standard centrifugation protocol from blood collected in red top tubes with clot activator or gold top tubes with serum separator from prostatectomy cases between 2002 to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data and have matched snap-frozen and FFPE tissue. More recent specimens have extensive processing annotation.
Plasma Plasma derived using a standard centrifugation protocol from blood collected in lavender EDTA tubes from prostatectomy cases between 2002 to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data and have matched snap-frozen and FFPE tissue. More recent specimens have extensive processing annotation.
Buffy Coat Buffy coat derived using a standard centrifugation protocol from blood collected in lavender EDTA tubes from prostatectomy cases between 2002 to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data and have matched snap-frozen and FFPE tissue. More recent specimens have extensive processing annotation.
Prostatic Fluid Prostatic fluid obtained from prostatectomy cases between 2000 to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data and have matched snap-frozen, FFPE tissue and/or blood component material.
Seminal Vesicle (SV) Fluid SV fluid obtained from prostatectomy cases between 2010 to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data and have matched snap-frozen, FFPE tissue and/or blood component material.

Body fluids Collection in Development:

Type of Specimen Description
Advanced disease Blood Samples Blood samples from men with rising-PSA post-treatment or disseminated disease. Blood samples will be collected in lavender top EDTA, red top with clot activator or gold top with serum separator tubes and processed using a standard centrifugation protocol to derive serum, plasma and buffy coat. Can be matched to FFPE tissue and clinical data.
Organ Donor Blood samples Blood samples from men without prostate cancer aged between 20 to 40 years obtained from organ donor networks. Blood samples will be collected in lavender top EDTA, red top with clot activator or gold top with serum separator tubes and processed using a standard centrifugation protocol to derive serum, plasma and buffy coat. All with minimal clinical information.
Rapid-Autopsy Blood Samples Blood samples from men who have died with metastatic prostate cancer. Blood samples will be collected in lavender top EDTA, red top with clot activator or gold top with serum separator tubes and processed using a standard centrifugation protocol to derive serum, plasma and buffy coat.
Urine Urine samples collected post-DRE from men with prostate cancer prior to any treatment. Urine samples can be matched to FFPE and/or snap-frozen tissue should the prostate be resected and clinical and epidimiological data.

Derivatives (dna, rna, protein)

Our derivatives collection span from 2000s to present. Most have matched snap-frozen and FFPE tissue and are clinicopathologically annotated, while some cases have matched blood component material.

Available Derived Specimens:

Type of Specimen Description
DNA DNA extracted from normal SV, radical-retropubic and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy specimens (snap-frozen and fixed) from 2000s to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data. Most have matched snap-frozen and FFPE tissue and/or blood components. More recent specimens also have extensive processing annotation.
RNA RNA extracted from snap-frozen and fixed radical-retropubic and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy specimens from 2000s to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data. Most have matched snap-frozen and FFPE tissue and/or blood components. More recent specimens also have extensive processing annotation.
Protein Protein extracted from snap-frozen and fixed radical-retropubic and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy specimens from 2000s to present. A large subset are linked to clinical, pathology and outcome data. Most have matched snap-frozen and FFPE tissue and/or blood components. More recent specimens also have extensive processing annotation.

Derivatives Collection in Development:

Type of Specimen Description
Organ Donor DNA DNA extracted from normal prostate specimens obtained from organ donor networks. All with minimal clinical information.
Rapid-Autopsy DNA DNA extracted from prostate and metastatic cancer specimens from men who have died with advanced metastatic disease.
Organ Donor RNA RNA extracted from normal prostate specimens obtained from organ donor networks. All with minimal clinical information.
Rapid-Autopsy RNA RNA extracted from prostate and metastatic cancer specimens from men who have died with advanced metastatic disease.
Organ Donor Protein RNA extracted from normal prostate specimens obtained from organ donor networks. All with minimal clinical information.
Rapid-Autopsy Protein RNA extracted from prostate and metastatic cancer specimens from men who have died with advanced metastatic disease.